Dating chinese porcelain
Inserts (not to the same scale): shard, Chinese porcelain painted in overglaze red enamels on one side, underglaze blue on the other, 1598–1680, San Gabriel de Yunque. Shards of Chinese porcelain have been found in what is now New Mexico (United States of America), which was then part of New Spain. Margret Medley, "Trade, Craftmanship, and Decoration," in ibid., p. Perhaps the most well-known dated piece is the jar from the Russell Tyson Collection, dated 1646, in the Chicago Art Institute, illustrated in Stephen Little, Chinese Ceramics of the Transitional Period, 1620–1683, New York 1983, pp. Twentieth-century excavations for the Mexico City Metro uncovered a large collection of archaeological artifacts including quantities of Chinese porcelain shards. Although these cannot be dated, Chinese porcelain shards were of such volume "as to make it obvious that it was not a ware used only by the rich." Most of the shards found were parts of tea or wine cups and rice bowls. The Irish friar Thomas Cage, an early seventeenth-century visitor to Mexico City, wrote, commenting on the wealth to be seen in the capital, that many inhabitants wore "the best silks from China." Previous to the Spanish conquest Mexico City (then Tenochtitlán) was crisscrossed by canals. Recent attempts by Daisy Lion-Goldschmidt have failed to find it (Daisy Lion-Goldschmidt, "Les Porcelaines Chinoises du Palai de Santos," Arts Asiatiques, Vol. When Hernán Cortés decided to raze the city to the ground, the canals were filled with debris and this continued after the Conquest. Some of it was then carried on muleback to Vera Cruz via Puebla, while most of it was taken to Mexico City (see map).
Spanish traders quickly saw the opportunity to send Chinese porcelain to the Spanish colonies in the Americas in exchange for silver, much in demand in China. These pieces are mentioned as belonging to Philip II at the Escorial in 1577. The Spanish conquered Mexico during the first quarter of the sixteenth century. At the same time, the Philippine Islands were explored by Ferdinand Magellan and claimed as part of the Spanish Empire. Several European expeditions explored in the area that is now New Mexico during the sixteenth century, the most famous of which was that of Coronado (1540–1541). A permanent colony was founded in 1598 by Juan de Oñate of Zacatecas, a wealthy silver mining center; he received a contract from the Spanish crown to colonize the northern frontier of New Mexico. Lightbown, "Oriental Art and the Orient in Late Renaissance and Baroque Italy." Journal of the Warburg and Courtland Institutes, Vol.